2021. № 3 (29), 176-185

Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences


The paper deals with the orthography of proper names and names consisting of several words. There are proper names in the narrow sense of the word, in which all components are written with an uppercase grapheme (anthroponyms, zoonyms, toponyms, astronyms), and compound names in which, as a rule, only the first word is capitalized (historiconyms, politonyms, ergonyms, etc.); there are also transient cases that make up the spelling ambiguity zone. However, the general rule for standardizing the spelling of multicomponent onyms turns out to be insufficient. Contrary to the traditional approach, the article raises the question of the spelling properties of multicomponent onyms not in relation to their conceptual correlation (connection with the named objects of extra-linguistic reality), but due to structural features: the presence of a generic term (appellative identifier), the place of the generic term in the nomination (in preposition or postposition to the name itself), which is determined by the grammatical type of the phrase: adjective (for example, Карибское море, Викторианская эпоха, Нобелевская премия), genitive (море Лаптевых, династия Габсбургов, эпоха Возрождения), appositive (озеро Байкал, династия Сун, партия «Подемос», премия «Оскар») or structurally heterogeneous (Великая хартия вольностей). There are cases when the initial position of a generic term, which requires graphic highlighting, conflicts with its appellative status. In nominations without a generic term in the composition, the nature of the initial component matters (eg, р/Раннее Возрождение, с/Старый Новый год, з/Зимняя Олимпиада, «б/Большая семерка», б/Бедная Лиза); also important is the degree of phraseologization of the proprietary unit, the degree of its possible decomposability into components without changing the meaning.