2019. № 2 (20), 48-57

 Kaluga State University


In linguistic literature, paradigmatically limited meanings were noticed, first of all, in the use of verbal aspects. Thus V. V. Vinogradov wrote about the incompatibility of some figurative senses of a verb with the perfective aspect. [Vinogradov 1938: 144]. In explanatory dictionaries such restrictions of lexical meanings of verbs are fixed, as a rule. With respect to nouns dictionaries note restrictions in number forms more often than other ones. In the given article paradigmatically limited metonymic meanings of various lexical groups of nouns denoting states, spontaneous phenomena, etc. (heat, cold, wind, fog, snowfall, etc.). in the instrumental case with the prepositions in andon, in the accusative case with the prepositions on and in, in the genitive case with the preposition with: (there, where); (from where); (then, when) — to stand in the draught; to put out in the cold; to come from the cold; to bathe during a storm, etc. are considered. Observations show that paradigmatically limited metonimic meanings can emerge when nouns are used metaphorically as well. It is characteristic , mainly, of artistic, especially poetic speech, for example: The platoon goes to fog, to fog, to fog, and the past is clearer, clearer, clearer (B. Okudzhava). Here fog stands for something, which is not clear, unknown.