2017. № 3 (13), 349-355

Lomonosov Moscow State University


Modern Russian language has obtained obvious synthetic properties in ways to express grammatical meanings — the conjunction of lexical and grammatical meanings in a word. In this article, we point out that throughout the foreseeable historical period, Russian language has significantly expanded its abilities to synthezise and has formed a whole arsenal of synthetic means. We focus on the processes that make a typological impact into Russian language and change both ways to express grammatical meanings and the degree of language synthesis. Those include some ways to form new parts of speech and grammatical categories, to express new grammatical meanings and to develop synthetic grammatical means based on analytical and wordformation elements.

We illustrate the formation of the numerals on the lexical basis of countable words and phrases by using various synthetic means and units which are actualized and invented to express the grammatical meaning.

Some synthetic grammatical means such as affixation and alternations in a word stem could be used to form the grammatical category of verb aspects based on lexico semantic ways of verbal action. To express a regular grammatical meaning, the category of verb aspects has involved prefixes and suffixes — morphemes that has never participated to express grammatical meanings yet.

The formation and expantion of synthetic means on the basis of analytical and wordformation elements are particularly indicative for a modern vector of the grammatical system development.

Parallel functioning of analytical forms in the system of Russian language does not however indicate trends towards analytism as to a vector of the grammatical system development.