The article deals with the actual problems of spelling from the point of view of modern functional linguistics. Its main principle is the modeling of the native speaker's activity, which is caused by interpretive processes and collective language practice. The author analyzes the spelling practice in the aspect of the action of the linguistic universal of phraseologization, which is a pragmatic mechanism of language, an element of the category of selection. The author also refers to the elements of the selection category as hieroglyphic characters — quotation marks, italics, and capital letters in proper names. The author shows that phraseologization manifests its effect at the level of syntagmatics of morphemes, forms the lexical meaning of a word and determines its paradigmatic connections.The article deals with the issue of determining the boundary of a derived word. The author argues that for the correct interpretation of the meaning of a derived word, an analysis of the structural and semantic relations of its parts is necessary, since word-forming formants only outline its possible morphemic division. The author defines inflection as a means of grammatical semantics, and not as a formal inflectional category. The result of phraseologization is semantic unities, which, as independent units, participate in the linear organization of the utterance. Lexemes that are fixed in the system as a result of the lexical-syntactic method of word formation show a low degree of morphemic division and a high degree of idiomaticity. In the article, much attention is paid to the problem of fused / separate spelling of words with a negative particle "not". The author describes words with the lexicalization of negation, derived words that have passed the process of simplification, analyzes the meaning of lexical complexes "negation + verb" in constructions with an assertive meaning.