2020. № 2 (24), 170-190

 Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences


The purpose of this article is to preliminarily outline a certain approach in which there are 4 “levels” of depth in semantics, and also to try to classify linguistic disciplines (primarily sections of modern semantics) in accordance with this “4-level” approach. The signifier and the signified are directly related to each other. Their one-to-one correspondence is violated only with morphological equivalence (polymorphism, that is, homosemia and doubleness) and ambivalence (homonymy). The meaning and sense are connected by an “asymmetric connection,” which includes, in addition to direct nomination (and the main meaning), deviations from it: namely, inventory-semantic equivalence (language synonymy) and inventory-semantic ambivalence (language polysemy). The meanings and signifiers (as well as the signified) belong to the language system, they are stored in long-term memory, their number can be calculated. They can be listed in the inventory (lexicon or grammar). The contents and meanings belong to speech, they are stored in short-term memory, it is impossible to list them, but they are formed according to certain integral-semantic and pragmatic rules, therefore they can be calculated. Such sections of semantics are schematically distinguished, they are: trivial (it studies the relationship between the signifier and the signified), inventory (it studies the relationship between the signified and the meaning), integral (it studies the relationship between the meaning and content) and pragmatic (it studies the relationship between content and meaning; = pragmatics). Regardless of this division, the semantics are divided into the semantics of the speaker and the semantics of the listener; therefore, semasiology vs. onomasiology, inside the integral — interpretive vs. generative semantics, in- side the pragmatic — hermeneutics and rhetoric. Semasiology, interpreting semantics (= model of semantic analysis) and hermeneutics (= model of pragmatic analysis) are engaged in modeling understanding (speech perception). Onomasiology, generating semantics (= model of semantic synthesis) and rhetoric (= model of pragmatic synthesis), are engaged in the modeling of speaking (speech production).