2019. № 2 (20), 21-31

 Saratov State University


 The article gives a diachronic characteristic of the metaphoric subsystem formed on the basis of the spatial modal model (in its broad sense), in the derivational and grammatical aspects. The author reveals the structure of this model, establishes the conceptual filling of the basic differential components of the members of the metaphorical field, and also compares the lexical means of implementing the model in Old Russian and modern Russian. Synchronous-diachronic analysis of these means convincingly proves that during the entire historical period of the development of the Russian language, the formation of the homotypic hyphenation among the members of one semantic sphere is systemic, but selective. Significant role in this process is played by such signs as the part-of-speech belonging of the lexeme, the type of its morphemic and word-formative structure. The system-modelled nature of the formation and development of the modal metaphorical field is manifested in several aspects. In particular, already in the Old Russian language the verbal word-forming nests are included most regularly in the process of metaphorization within the framework of this model, the members of which (due to the corresponding word-formation and morphemic structure) are able to express the maximum number of situations envisaged by the model. In the course of historical development, there is a tendency to strengthen systematicity in the expression of a specific type of metaphorical meanings within the members of one nest. This is manifested in the loss of semantic doublets, as well as in drawing new derivatives formed on the basis of existing semantic word-formation models into the process of metaphorization. This process primarily affects nuclear verbal nests, but can extend then to other nests within the same semantic group. Along with this, there is an opposite tendency: at different stages of development, new semantic doublets can be formed in the metaphorical subsystem. But this process is usually characteristic of peripheral nests, that are non-numerous in the metaphorical field, and the doublet forms are not stable in time