2019. № 1 (19), 265-274

V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences


The article considers different types of occasional words included in five issues of «Materials to the dictionary of metaphors and similes of the XIX–XX centuries Russian literature» («Birds», «Animals, insects, fish, snakes», «Plants», «Stones, metals», «Fabrics»), and their role in the evolution of semantic classes of metaphors and similes. Among the occasionalisms, words formed by highly productive word-formation models are distinguished, their novelty is felt rather faintly, and they are fixed in the language of literature from the beginning of the period under study — from the XIX century: nouns with suffixes -ost’ / -est’ formed from metaphorical adjectives, derived from the names of animals, plants, stones and metals, fabrics; adverbs ending in -o, also formed from metaphorical adjectives. З.Ю. Петрова 274 For some other models, words with a higher occasionality rate are formed. They appear in the language of literature in the twentieth century. These are feminine nouns with a zero suffix derived from metaphorical nouns or adjectives, verbs with the suffixes -it’ and -et’ (sometimes with a postfix -sya) with the meaning of similarity derived from nouns, verbs with prefix raz-, iz, o-, vy- and the suffix -it’. In addition, individual author’s occasionalisms are found in the studied material, which do not meet any derivational models. All these individual occasionalisms still fit into certain figurative parallels. A separate group of occasionalisms are compound words. The conducted research allows to conclude that the occasional derivatives make up a large percentage of the elements of figurative parallels in the language of literature and play an important role in their variation, development and renovation.