2018. № 3 (17), 176-184


Tula laboratory of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation


 This paper is devoted to the history of the relations between voiced velar consonants [г] and [γ] in Russian. During the Slavic-Iranian symbiosis [γ] became attribute of sacral lexicon. The fall of the jers stimulated shift к : г → к : γ (→ h), supported by an attraction in morphonemes {г/ж’}, {г/з’}. In the South new [γ] converged with ancient, the result has been acquired by Church Slavonic. In the North, where the place of {г/з’} was occupied by a morphoneme {г/г’}, the shift hasn't been generalized, and [γ] was acquired as unit of literary language. The supralinguistic opposition “〈γ〉 (bookish speech + South) : [г] (colloquial speech North)” was formed. In the 18th century the relations between [γ] and [г] were exposed to the analysis. V. E. Adodurov and V. K. Trediakovskii, treating 〈γ〉 as unmarked phoneme in a 〈г〉-area, faced a contradiction between norm and usage. M. V. Lomonosov, trying to overcome this contradiction, offered the project of internal opposition 〈г〉 : 〈γ〉, where 〈г〉 is unmarked. In the 19th century the mutable unit 〈г/γ〉 was created, which varied stylistic and emotional coloring of the text. Typologically excessive opposition 〈г〉 : 〈γ〉 disappeared. As identification researches show, in modern Russian 〈г/γ〉 is the stable parameter of an idiolect and can also serve as a tool for a desirable communicative image.