2017. № 3 (13), 68-81

Belorussian State University


Democratization of literary (standard) language consists in the codification for to reduce efforts of people at acquisition of a standard language (reform of the letter in Russia 1708–1710; Russian graphic-orthography reform in 1918 etc). Democratization is shown in a сolloquialization of well-bred speech, in refusal of archaisms, rare, idiomatic and unmotivated forms and preference simple, evident and easily explainable. The liberal codification increases the number of admissible speech fluctuations.

In the history of written communication there are two stages in development of language situations, to each of which there corresponds the own special type of the literary language, with cardinally different (in each type) relationship between a standard language and the natural ("live") speech. The literary languages of the first (old) type developed in situations of cultural- religious bilingualism, when in one society are used two an idiom: the supra-ethnic cult language and ethnic (national) language which is out of standard estimates. Historically the first linguistic ideology was far from language democratism. Its characteristic features there are as follows: aspiration to hold cult language in church and other prestigious spheres of life, to keep cult language in his original form; conservative and restoration purposes of philological work.

The literary languages of new type began to develop in postfeudal time, in process of laicisation of education and culture. The religious bilingualism gradually gave way to national monolingualism. The deepest typological difference between the literary language of old and new type consists that in national languages informal conversation became a type of standard communication. The fields of use of the rated speech have as a result extended; in all population the percent speaking a standard language sharply has grown. In the near future volumes of categories "public language" and "standard language" will coincide.

Democratization of the literary languages is caused by spontaneous thousand-year tendencies in the history of mankind. Democratization is a language component of two trends — intensifications of life and homogenization of human communities. Parallel to distribution of features of external (stylistic) democratic character of languages their structural-syntactic and terminological complication takes place.