The article provides examples of nicknames obtained as a result of a survey of residents of several villages in the Taldomsky district of the Moscow region. Observations of the dialectal anthropony of the surveyed territory lead to conclusions about its structural and semantic diversity. It seems possible to consider these anthroponyms in two main aspects: from the point of view of their formation and clarification of the motivational attribute. The most productive in the structure of nicknames is the suffix, which is a word-forming formant. Dialectal vocabulary is a repository of Old Russian and ProtoSlavic archaisms. The article provides dialectal and historical data that make it possible to clarify the appellative basis of some anthroponyms. The nicknames reflect the relics of the Old Russian naming principle, which included five more or less regularly recurring components for the male population: an indication of origin from a certain locality or belonging to a certain people; indication of position, occupation, profession; personal name; indication of the name, nickname or profession of the father, individual nickname. The persistence of the traditional system of naming a wife by husband, less often — a daughter by a father is obvious. The basis of dialectal onomastic vocabulary is made up of microtoponymic and microanthroponymic formations. In the series of their production bases, precedent names occupy a special place.